Latest topics
» GUYS. "DOOD" IS HERE!
Tue Nov 29, 2011 10:27 am by Karma

» Hi guys! Lalala
Mon Nov 28, 2011 9:26 pm by Pukito

» ARGHHHrrhhghghg
Sun Nov 27, 2011 1:25 pm by Pukito

» [Flash Game] - I don't even
Sat Nov 26, 2011 11:08 pm by Karma

» Hi, nice to meet you.
Sat Nov 26, 2011 12:48 am by Pukito

» I think I see ..
Sat Nov 26, 2011 12:47 am by Pukito

» Where Karma goes...
Fri Nov 25, 2011 2:14 am by Karma

» Guys
Tue Nov 22, 2011 9:11 pm by Pukito

» Karmini's Pose
Tue Nov 22, 2011 8:31 pm by Karma

» The Order (1)
Sat Nov 19, 2011 10:42 pm by Karma

July 2018
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031    

Calendar Calendar


[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups

Go down

[OCHEM: Lesson 2] - Basic Functional Groups

Post by Alias on Tue Oct 11, 2011 3:46 pm

Lesson 2 - Basic Functional Groups?
Hi guys! In this lesson, I will just throw on a lot of pictures and words. These are some of the more important functional groups.. But not all the functional groups. It is usually a good idea to be able to recognize each of these structures. Only the basic nomenclature is listed here. There will be more detail in the following lessons. xD This is mainly a reference lesson I suppose.

Quick Jump (Click to go!)

Root Names
Legend (Symbols used in Pictures)
List of Functional Groups



Root Names
So here are some of the root names for nomenclature. These are used when naming the main root of the compound (The main functional group would add a suffix to these roots). These are also used when naming some substituents.

If it's a ....
1 Carbon Chain
Then the root name is...
Meth-

1 Carbon Chain
Meth-


2 Carbon Chain
Eth-


3 Carbon Chain
Prop-
C-C-C

4 Carbon Chain
But-
C-C-C-C

5 Carbon Chain
Pent-
C-C-C-C-C

6 Carbon Chain
Hex-
C-C-C-C-C-C

7 Carbon Chain
Hept-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C

8 Carbon Chain
Oct-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

9 Carbon Chain
Non-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

10 Carbon Chain
Dec-
C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C

.... And so on. (undec, dodec.. etc)


Back to top


Some of the symbols I will be using on my diagrams
  • R = Some attached chain that is usually some alkyl group attached to the main chain. Note, usually.

  • R' = Some other attached chain. Similar to R. All this means is that the two R's don't have to be the same thing.

  • R'' = Same as R', all it means is that the (R)'s don't have to be the same chain. An example is that R is really actually a single hydrogen. R' could easily be a single hydrogen as well, but it could also be a Carbon attached to three hydrogens (methyl). The reason R is used is because we're trying to be general here.

  • C = Carbon

  • H = Hydrogen

  • O = Oxygen (Red)

  • N = Nitrogen(Blue)

  • S = Sulphur (Yellow)

  • X = Halogen(Green)

  • + = Positively Charged

  • - = Negatively Charged

Sometimes I might just use colours. Anything that is not given a colour will probably be drawn in black.

Back to top


Listed in the order of increasing priority order:
(the higher priority groups are typically numbered so that they get the lowest number)
The starred names are the ones that should've been taught in a regular high school Chemistry class.

*Alkanes
Nitro
*Alkyl Halides/Haloalkanes
*Alkynes
*Alkenes
Sulphides
*Ethers
Amines
Thiols
*Alcohols
*Ketones
*Aldehydes
Nitriles
*Amides
Acyl Halides
*Esters
Acid Anhydrides
*Carboxylic Acids
Arenes (are not part of the priority list)

Back to top


Alkanes
  • As a main functional group, having an alkane attached will affect the root suffix by making it end with -ane (as in alk"ane")

Example: Methane, Butane

  • As an alkane substituent, it is usually called an "alkyl" group. (as in "alk"ane) Substituent groups are then named SOMETHING-yl. The something is replaced by "meth" or "eth".. depending on the substituent root.

Example: Methyl, Butyl

Back to top


Nitro

Back to top


Alkyl Halides/Haloalkanes

Back to top


Alkynes

Back to top


Alkenes

Back to top


Sulphides

Back to top


Ethers

Back to top


Amines

Back to top


Thiols

Back to top


Alcohols

Back to top


Ketones

Back to top


Aldehydes

Back to top


Nitriles

Back to top


Amides

Back to top


Acyl Halides

Back to top


Esters

Back to top


Acid Anhydrides

Back to top


Carboxylic Acids

Back to top


Arenes (are not part of the priority list)

Back to top

avatar
Alias
Beggar
Beggar

Posts : 26
Monies : 3822
Reputation : 0
Join date : 2011-09-30

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Back to top


 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum