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[OCHEM: Lesson 1] - Very Basic Nomenclature

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[OCHEM: Lesson 1] - Very Basic Nomenclature

Post by Alias on Tue Oct 11, 2011 1:45 pm

Hi guys! Seeming I'm no proficient enough in Python yet to teach you anything (I could very well teach you the basics, but I'll do that later.) So I'll share some Chemistry knowledge. This doesn't mean I'm an expert though xD So I could very well be wrong somewhere. Sorry if that's the case anytime soon.

We're doing Organic Chemistry, by the way. But let's take a moment to talk about what that actually means! (Please take a moment to also forgive my n00b English)

Note: Some things like "Functional Groups" will be covered later, so don't get too confused. D:

What is Organic Chemistry?
IUPAC Nomenclature
Steps to Naming (IUPAC)
Definitions

Organic Chemistry is pretty much a subgroup of Chemistry, meaning that Chemistry is the main big branch, and then Organic Chemistry is a smaller branch. Organic Chemistry, like Chemistry, involves scientifically studying reactions (whether it be composition, properties, synthesis..) of carbon compounds, and hydrocarbons (compounds made up of only hydrogen and carbon). Also, we study the derivatives of these carbon compounds and hydrocarbon compounds.

Sounds fun, right? Smile

IUPAC Nomenclature
-The root name of the compound is determined by the longest carbon chain
-The root name is modified by "functional groups" which are attached to the root

-The highest priority functional groups modify the suffix of the root name
-All other attached grounds (substituents) are added as prefixes to the root name

-There can be more than one functional group

Basic Steps to Naming an Organic Compound
  • Identify the main "functional group" and substituents, if any

  • Identify the longest continuous chain containing the functional group

  • Assign numbering to the main "functional group" and the substituents


In the end, the IUPAC name of the structure will somewhat look like:
(Locant-for substituents)(Multiplier-if any)(Substituent-as a prefix)(ROOT)(Locant-of main functional group)(suffix added by the main functional group)

Some Vocab to enrich your Organic Chemistry Life!
Note that we will probably cover these in more detail later. This section is just used to provide some basic life-enriching vocab so you're not completely lost. xD;

  • A multiplier is used to identify if any groups occur more than once. Words such as "di", "tri", "tetra"... etc. are used.

  • The root is the longest continuous (usually Carbon) chain that includes the main functional group.

  • A substituent is a functional group that is attached to the longest carbon chain. The substituent is not the main functional group, meaning that it is a functional group attached to the longest carbon chain with low priority. Multiple different substituents are ordered based on alphabeticalness.
    • A complex substituent involves a substituent connected to a substituent. Brackets are then placed around the name. 4-(1,1-diME).... The reason this is not in alphabetical is because the "M" is attached to the "E".. We'll show more detail later when we get to the functional groups.

  • A functional group defines the class that the compound belongs to. (This will be discussed later.. As there are many many functional groups. xD;) The main functional group affects the suffix of the root name. The main functional group is the highest priority.

  • Locants are numbers that define the position of the main functional group and the substituents. The main functional group is usually given the lowest number. In the case where a substituent is also present, try to give a lower number to the main functional group first, and then the next lowest number to the substituents based on alphabet. (A substituent starting with "E" would go before a substituent starting with "M"; 4-E-3-M-2-MainRoot)
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Wow.

Post by Alias on Tue Oct 11, 2011 1:54 pm

I just had a moment of realization as I was writing the next lesson..

Why am I teaching you guys this anyways? XD


But whatever, Chemistry is for everyone!

I'll start teaching something useful one day, lol..
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